CLIFFORD GEERTZ AND MICHAEL PACANOWSKY
Enthnographers observe, record and analyze, and conduct a lot of participant observation. Need a lot of raw material to interpret.
Princeton anthropologist Clifford Geertz views cultures as webs of shared meaning. Geertz describes us as "animals suspended in webs of significance that he himself has spun". Culture is shared meaning, shared understanding and shared sense making
Geertz's work has focused on Third World cultures, but others have applied his ethnographic approach to organizations. In speech communication, University of Colorado Professor Michael Pacanowsky has applied Geertz's approach in his research of organizations.
Culture as a metaphor for organizational life.
Organizations as machines, as living organisms, as brains, as psychic prisons. (Morgan,1986)
The interest in the culture metaphor for organizations stems from our recent interest in Japanese corporations.
Corporate culture has several meanings:
As an ethnographer, Pacanowsky is particularly interested in imaginative language, stories, and nonverbal rites and rituals. i.e. Students, Support Staff, Sessionals, Instructors, Professors, Associate Deans, Deans, Vice-Presidents, President.
Metaphors: taking language seriously:
The symbolic interpretation of story: Stories provide windows into organizational culture.
Three types of organizational narratives:
Wood, Julia. (1997) Communication Theories in Action: An Introduction Wadsworth Publishing Company.
McClish, Glen. (1997). Instructor's Manual to Accompany EM Griffin's A First Look at Communication Theory McGraw-Hill Companies Inc.
Morgan, Gareth. (1986). Images of Organizations. Sage Publications. Newbury Park. California.
Griffin, EM. (1997) A First Look at Communication Theory. McGraw-Hill Companies Inc.
OFFICER AND A GENTLEMAN
G.I. JANE "OPENING SCENE".